Research under this theme analyses the major challenges of post-conflict reconstruction and recovery in the Arab region. After a decade of increasingly devastating conflict, there is an urgent need to assess the record of reconstruction in the region to evaluate lessons learned and devise regionally-rooted ways forward in recovery. Firstly, this will involve studies of individual country experiences of recovery, including Syria, Gaza, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Secondly, our research maintains a broad comparative focus in order to explore the potential for integrated and regionalised approaches to reconstruction in the Arab world. Finally, the research on national and regional cases adopts a forward-looking perspective and informs our collaborative engagement with policy-makers and planners in envisioning alternative pathways to sustainable recovery.